Plant physiology encompasses the study of plant form and function. As plants evolved to life on land they were required to evolve methods to survive with the separation of CO2 and water. Plant physiology looks at the different parts of plants and how they work, either individually or collectively. It includes the study of such topics in plant biology as the structure and function of leaves, stems and roots, water and sugar conductivity, and the reproductive organs of plants.
Leaves are a vital organ of plants and grow in a range of shapes and sizes. They are the primary location of photosynthesis – the process that uses the sun’s energy and carbon dioxide to produce sugars.
Stems perform many important functions that help plants grow, compete and survive across a huge range of environments. The structure of stems can be incredibly variables from species to species.
Plant roots evolved to solve the problem of nutrient and water absorption when plants moved from water to land millions of years ago. They are now a critical plant organ for the vast majority of plant species.
The xylem and phloem make up the vascular tissue in plants. Commonly known as ‘sap’ the xylem and phloem transport water, sugars and other important substances between leaves, stems, and roots.